The Surrey Iron Railway from Croydon to Wandsworth opened in 1803 and was the world's first public railway.
Later nineteenth century railway building facilitated Croydon's growth as a commuter town for London.
The original palace was sold in 1781, by then dilapidated and surrounded by slums and stagnant ponds, and a new residence, at nearby Addington, purchased in its place.
Many of the buildings of the original Croydon Palace survive, and are in use today as Old Palace School.
Croydon was amalgamated into Greater London in 1965.
Croydon lies on a transport corridor between central London and the south coast of England, to the north of two gaps in the North Downs, one followed by the A23 Brighton Road through Purley and Merstham and the main railway line and the other by the A22 from Purley to the M25 Godstone interchange.
In the mid 20th century these sectors were replaced by retailing and the service economy, brought about by massive redevelopment which saw the rise of office blocks and the Whitgift Centre, the largest shopping centre in London until 2008.Road traffic is diverted away from a largely pedestrianised town centre, mostly consisting of North End.