The main organiser and leader of the expedition was Vitus Bering, who earlier had been commissioned by Peter I to lead the First Kamchatka expedition.
The Second Kamchatka Expedition lasted roughly from 1733–1743 and later was called the Great Northern due to the immense scale of its achievements.
One of the most important achievements of the expedition was the mapping of the north east part of Asia. Petersburg Academy of Science published in 1754 a map with the title Nouvelle Carte des Découvertes faites par des Vaisseaux Russiens, which also depicted Vitus Bering's and Aleksei Chirikov's sea route.
The new geographic information was quickly diffused and received widespread attention in all of Europe.
Prior to full independence, Kazakhstan existed as the Kazakh SSR republic in the Soviet Union.
It definitively refuted the legend of a land mass in the north Pacific, and did ethnographic, historic, and scientific research into Siberia and Kamchatka.
After the murder of some of their fellow prisoners by guards, Kengir inmates launched a rebellion and seized the entire camp compound, holding it for weeks and creating a period of freedom for themselves unique in the history of the Gulag.